The European Journal of Humour Research

Vol 7, No 3 (2019)

Developing the humour repertoire concept to guide future tourism-humour research

Anja Pabel,Philip L. Pearce


The central interest in this study is to develop and position the humour repertoire concept for tourism and leisure research. The term humour repertoire encompasses the totality of a persons abilities and skills to both appreciate and produce humour. Such skills include the individuals humorous (travel) stories, jokes from their life and travels, and the ability to see travel and leisure situations as amusing. A framework outlining the role of the humour repertoire is presented and an online empirical study is reported to address select components of the conceptual scheme. The results show a weak association between humour appreciation and production, indicating that researchers examining humour in tourism need to be careful in building generic implications from select work. Attention is then given to the multiple social and contextual factors beyond the individual level that need to be considered when assessing humour in diverse tourism contexts. Fresh research directions are indicated by considering the richness of the repertoire framework and links to cognitive schema research.


Babad, E. Y. (1974). A multi-method approach to the assessment of humor: A critical look at humor tests. Journal of Personality, 42(4), 618-631.

Baltar, F., & Brunet, I. (2012). Social research 2.0: virtual snowball sampling method using Facebook. Internet Research, 22(1), 57-74.

Cappelli, G. (2008). Expats’ talk: Humour and irony in an expatriate’s travel blog. Textus, 21(1), 9-26.

Chan, F. Y. (2010). Selling through entertaining: The effect of humour in television advertising in Hong Kong. Journal of Marketing Communication, 1-18.

Chik, M. P. Y., Leung, C. S. B., & Molloy, G. N. (2005). Development of a Measure of Humour Appreciation. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 5, 26-31.

Collett, P. (2004). The book of tells. London: Pan

Collins Dictionary. (2017). Repertoire. Retrieved April 15th, 2017 from Collins Dictionary:

Crawford, M. (1995). Talking difference: On gender and language. London: Sage Publications.

Crawford, M., & Gressley, D. (1991). Creativity, caring, and context: Women’s and men’s accounts of humour preferences and practices. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15(2), 217-231.

Crawford, S. A., & Caltabiano, N. J. (2011). Promoting emotional well-being through the use of humour. Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(3), 237-252.

Critchley, S. (2002). On humour. London: Routledge.

Davies, C. (1990). Ethnic Humour around the World: A Comparative Analysis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Dillman, D. A., & Bowker, D. K. (2001). The web questionnaire challenge to survey methodologists. In U. D. Reips & M. Bosnjak (Eds.), Dimensions of Internet science (pp. 159–178). Lengerich, Germany: Pabst Science Publishers.

El Refaie, E. (2011). The pragmatics of humour reception: Young people’s responses to a newspaper cartoon. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 24(1), 87-108.

Feingold, A. (1983). Measuring humor ability: Revision and construct validation of the Humor Perceptiveness Test. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 56(1), 159-166.

Feingold, A., & Mazzella, R. (1991). Psychometric intelligence and verbal humour ability. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(5), 427- 435.

Filep, S., Cao, D., Jiang, M., & DeLacy, T. (2013). Savouring tourist experiences after a holiday. Leisure/Loisir, 37(3), 191-203.

Forabosco, G., & Ruch, W. (1994). Sensation seeking, social attitudes and humour appreciation in Italy. Personality and Individual Differences, 16(4), 515-528.

Francesconi, S. (2011). Multimodally expressed humour shaping Scottishness in tourist postcards. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 9(1), 1-17.

Franzini, L. R. (2012). Just kidding: using humour effectively. Plymouth: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What Good Are Positive Emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 300-319.

Frew, E. A. (2006). The humour tourists: A conceptualisation. Journal of Business Research, 59(5), 643-646.

Fuchs, S. (1992). The professional question for truth: A social theory of science and knowledge. Albany, NY: State University of New York.

Heath, R. L., & Blonder, L. X. (2005). Spontaneous humour among right hemisphere stroke survivors. Brain and Language, 93, 267-276.

Howrigan, D.P., & MacDonald, K.B. (2008). Humor as a mental fitness indicator. Evolutionary Psychology, 6(4), 652-666.

Jarratt, J., & Mahaffie, J. B. (2009). Reframing the future. Journal of Futures Studies, 13(4), 5– 12.

Kazarian, S.S., & Martin, R.A. (2004). Humour styles, personality, and well-being among Lebanese university students. European Journal of Personality, 18, 209-219.

Köhler, G., & Ruch, W. (1996). Sources of variance in current sense of humor inventories: How much substance, how much method variance? Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 9(3-4), 363-397.

Lampert, M. D., & Ervin-Tripp, S. M. (1998). Exploring paradigms: The study of gender and sense of humour near the end of the 20th century. In W. Ruch (Ed.), The sense of humour: explorations of a personality characteristic (pp. 231-270). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Lewis, R. D. (2006). When Cultures Collide: Leading Across Cultures. Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey International.

Lowis, M.J. (2003). Cartoon humor: Do demographic variables and political correctness influence perceived funniness? Mankind Quarterly, 43(3), 273-289.

Martin, R. A. (1996). The Situational Humor Response Questionnaire (SHRQ) and Coping Humor Scale (CHS): A decade of research findings. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 9(3-4), 251-272.

Martin, R. A. (2007). The psychology of humor: an integrative approach. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Martin, R. A., & Kuiper, N. A. (1999). Daily occurrence of laughter: Relationships with age, gender, and Type A personality. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 12(4), 355-384.

Mitas, O., Yarnal, C., Adams, R., & Ram, N. (2012). Taking a “Peak” at Leisure Travelers’ Positive Emotions. Leisure Sciences, 34(2), 115-135.

Neuendorf, K. A., & Skalski, P. (2001). Senses of Humor: The Development of a Multi-factor Scale in Relationship to Moving Image Utility. Paper presented at the International Communication Association, Acapulco, Mexico.

Nevo, O., Aharonson, H., & Klingman, A. (1998). The development and evaluation of a systematic program for improving sense of humor. In W. Ruch (Ed.), The sense of humor: Explorations of a personality characteristic (pp. 15-60). New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Norrick, N. R. (2003). Issues in conversational joking. Journal of Pragmatics, 35, 1333-1359.

O’Quin, K., & Derks, P. (2011). Humour and creativity: A review of the empirical literature. In M. A. Runco (Ed.), Creativity research handbook (Vol. 1, pp. 227-256). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.

Outhwaite, W. (2000). The philosophy of social science. In B.S. Turner (Ed.), The Blackwell companion to social theory, 2nd ed. (pp. 47-70). Oxford: Blackwell.

Pabel, A. & Pearce, P.L. (2016). Tourists’ responses to humour. Annals of Tourism Research, 57, 190-205.

Pearce, P. L. (2004). Theoretical innovation in Asia Pacific tourism research. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 9(1), 57-70.

Pearce, P. L., & Pabel, A. (2015). Tourism and Humour. Bristol: Channel View Publications.

Pearce, P.L., & Zare, S. (2017). The orchestra model as the basis for teaching tourism experience design. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 30, 55-64.

Powell, J. P., & Andresen, L. W. (1985). Humour and teaching in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 10(1), 79-90.

Robinson, D. T., & Smith-Lovin, L. (2001). Getting a laugh: gender, status, and humour in task discussions. Social Forces, 80(1), 123-158.

Rose, S. (2010). Memories are made of this. In S. Radstone & B. Schwarz (Eds.), Memory: Histories, theories, debates (pp. 198-208). New York, NY: Fordham University Press.

Ruch, W. (1992). Assessment of appreciation of humor: Studies with the 3 WD Humor Test. In C. D. Spielberger & J. N. Butcher (Eds.), Advances in personality assessment (pp. 27-75). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ruch, W. (2004). Humour. In C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Character Strengths and Virtues: A handbook and classification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ruch, W., Beermann, U., & Proyer, R. T. (2009). Investigating the humor of gelotophobes: Does feeling ridiculous equal being humorless? Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 22, 111-143.

Shammi, P., & Stuss, D. T. (1999). Humour appreciation: A role of the right frontal lobe. Brain, 122, 657-666.

Thomas, A. B., & Al-Maskati, H. (2001). I suppose you think that’s funny! The role of humour in corporate learning events. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(4), 519-538.

Van Giffen, K., & Maher, K. (1995). Memorable humorous incidents: Gender, themes and setting effects. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 8, 39–50.

Vrticka, P., Black, J. M., & Reiss, A. L. (2013). The neural basis of humour processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14(12), 860-868.

Wall, G. (2000). Tourism and Humour in Tourism In J. Jafari (Ed.). Encyclopedia of tourism. (p. 291). London: Routledge.

Wall, G. (2017). Book review. Tourism and Humour. Tourism Recreation Research, 42(4) 546.

Wild, B., Rodden, F. A., Grodd, W. & Ruch, W. (2003).Neural correlates of laughter and humour. Brain 126, 2121–2138.

Wimer, D. J., & Beins, B. C. (2008). Expectations and perceived humour. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 21(3), 347-363.

Zweyer, K., Velker, B., & Ruch, W. (2004). Do cheerfulness, exhilaration, and humor production moderate pain tolerance? A FACS study. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 17(1/2), 85–119.