This article will analyse the preconditions of sense of humour for artificial intelligence. Can artificial intelligence have a sense of humour? Is there a difference between human and machine laughter? Some machines already fulfil certain conditions which are associated with the human sense of humour: on the most superficial level machines appear to laugh and produce jokes, and they recognize sarcasm and punchlines, and they can evaluate funniness. In short, artificial intelligence is already able to recognize humour, and reacts to it accordingly. Furthermore, people laugh with humorous machines. However, it is still uncertain whether artificial intelligence can have a sense of humour or not, at least in comparison to a human sense of humour. To build bridges between AI research and philosophy of humour, this article proposes that there are (at least) five notable philosophical issues to be addressed if we are to accept that machines can have a (humanlike) sense of humour. These principles are: 1) worldview, 2) self-consciousness, 3) self-reflection, 4) self-criticism, and 5) losing control.
Adamle, K. N. & Ludwick, R. (2005). ‘Humor in hospice care: Who, where, and how much?’. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine 22 (4), pp. 287-290.
Ajaye, F. (2002). Comic Insights. The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press.
Amir, L. (2014). Humor and the Good Life in Modern Philosophy. Shaftesbury, Hamann, Kierkegaard. New York: SUNY Press.
Amir, L. (2019). Philosophy, Humor, and the Human Condition. Taking Ridicule Seriously. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
Anderson, M. & Anderson, S. L. (2007). ‘Machine ethics: Creating an ethical intelligent agent’. AI Magazine 28, pp. 15-26.
Aquinas, T. (1972). Summa Theologiae. Trans. T. Gilby. London: Blackfriars.
Aristotle, (1970). The Ethics of Aristotle: the Nichomachean Ethics. Trans. J. A. K. Thomson. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books.
Aristotle, (2019). On the Parts of Animals: Book III. Trans. W. Ogle. Retrieved October 15, 2019 from https://penelope.uchicago.edu/aristotle/parts3.html.
Baudelaire, C. (1956). ‘The essence of laughter’. Trans. G. Hopkins, in Baudelaire, C., The Essence of Laughter and Other Essays, Journals and Letters. New York: Meridan Books.
Binsted, K. & Ritchie, G. (1997). ‘Computational rules for generating punning riddles’. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research 10 (1), pp. 25-76.
Blomqvist, C., Mello, I. & Amundin, M. (2005). ‘An acoustic play-fight signal in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)’. Human Care. Aquatic Mammals 31. 10.1578/AM.31.2.2005.187.
Borenstein, S. (2019). ‘No AI in humor: R2-D2 walks into a bar, doesn’t get the joke’. AP News. March 31, 2019.
Bringsjord, S. & Govindarajulu, N. S. (2020). ‘Artificial intelligence’, in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved June 23, 2021 from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/artificial-intelligence/
Brooks, R. & Dennett, D. (1994). ’The practical requirements for making a conscious robot’. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 349, pp. 133-146.
Carter, M. (2007). Minds and Computers: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Chiruzzo, L. et al. (2019). ‘Overview of HAHA at IberLEF 2019: Humor analysis based on human annotation’, in Proceedings of the Iberian Languages Evaluation Forum 2421 of CEUR Workshop Proceedings, pp. 132-144.
Comte-Sponville, A. (2001). A Small Treatise on the Great Virtues: The Uses of Philosophy. Trans. C. Temerson, in Everyday Life. New York: Metropolitan Books. Henry Holt and Company.
Critchley, S. (2002). On Humour. London: Routledge.
Davis, D. (2008). ‘Communication and humor’, in Raskin, V. (ed.), The Primer of Humor Research. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 543-568.
Descartes, R. (1911). The Philosophical Works of Descartes, Volume 1. Trans. E. Haldane & G. R. T. Ross. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Epictetus, (2009). The Enchiridion by Epictetus. Trans. E. Carter. Retrieved October 15, 2019 from http://classics.mit.edu/Epictetus/epicench.html.
Erasmus, (1941). The Praise of Folly. Trans. Hoyt Hopewell Hudson. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Fromm, E. (1990). The Sane Society. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Fromm, E. (2003). Man for Himself. An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics. London and New York: Routledge.
Generalova, V. (2018). Spontaneously Funny Dialogues in Human-Machine Communication. A scientific presentation in the 30th ISHS Conference 2018 in Tallinn, Estonia.
Graham, L. G. (2010). What Is It Like to be Funny? The Spontaneous Humor Producer’s Subjective Experience. PhD dissertation. Antioch University, Ohio.
Habermas, J. (1973). ‘Wahrheitstheorien’, in Fahrenbach, H. (ed.), Wirklichkeit und Reflexion. Pfüllingen: Neske, pp. 211-265.
Harari, Y. N. (2016). Homo Deus. A Brief History of Tomorrow. London: Vintage.
Hazlitt, W. (1951). Lectures on English Comic Writers. London: Oxford University Press.
Hempelmann, C. F. (2008). ‘Computational humor: Beyond the pun?’, in Raskin, V. (ed.), The Primer of Humor Research. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 333-360.
Hempelmann, C. F. (2014). ‘Humor and AI: Not logical’. De Connectie 11-1, pp. 10-13.
Hempelmann, C. F., Sundaram, R. & Harter, D. (2018). ‘Generation of humorous CAPTIONS FOR CARTOON IMAGES using deep learning’. Presentation at the 30th ISHS Conference 2018 in Tallinn, Estonia.
Hietalahti, J. (2016). The Dynamic Concept of Humor. Erich Fromm and the Possibility of Humane Humor. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
Hietalahti, J. (2017). ‘Socially critical humor: Discussing humor with Erich Fromm and Theodor W. Adorno’. Idéias 8 (1), pp. 87-108.
Hossain, N., Krumm, J., Gamon, M. & Kautz, H. (2020). ‘SemEval-2020 Task 7: Assessing humor in edited news headlines’, in Proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation. International Committee for Computational Linguistics, pp. 746-758.
Hunter, J. M. F. (1968). ‘”Forms of life” in Wittgenstein’s “Philosophical Investigations”’. American Philosophical Quarterly 5 (4), pp. 233-243.
Kato, I. (1973). ‘Development of WABOT 1’. Biomechanism 2, pp. 173-214.
Khosravi, P. & Ghapanchi A.H. (2015). ‘Investigating the effectiveness of technologies applied to assist aeniors: A systematic literature review’. International Journal of Medical Informatics 85 (1), pp. 17-26.
Khosravi, P., Rezvani, A. & Wiewiora, A. (2016). ‘The impact of technology on older adults’ Social Isolation’. Computers in Human Behavior 63, pp. 594-603.
Kinnunen, A. (1994). Huumorin ja koomisen keskeneräinen kysymys [The Unfinished Question of Humour and the Comic]. Helsinki: WSOY.
Laitinen, A. (2018). ‘What principles for moral machines?’, in Coeckelbergh, M. et al. (eds.), Envisioning Robots in Society – Power, Politics, and Public Space. Proceedings of Robophilosophy 2018 /TRANSOR 2018. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp. 319-326.
Laitinen, A., Niemelä, M. & Pirhonen, J. (2019). ‘Demands of dignity in robotic care: Recognizing vulnerability, agency, and subjectivity in robot-based, robot-assisted, and teleoperated elderly care’. Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 23: 3 (2019), pp. 366-401.
Lanier, J. (2010). You are Not a Gadget: A Manifesto. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Lanier, J. (2018). Ten Arguments for Deleting Your Social Media Accounts Right Now. New York: Henry Holt and Co.
Luria, S., Baer, J. & Kaufman, J. (eds.) (2018). Creativity and Humor. London/San Diego/Cambridge, MA/Oxford: Academic Press.
Mejia, C. & Kajikawa, Y. (2017). ‘Bibliometric analysis of social robotics research: Identifying research trends and knowledge base’. Applied Sciences 7 (12), 1316. Retrieved June 23, 2021 from https://doi.org/10.3390/app7121316.
Miller, T., Hempelmann, C. F. & Gurevych, I. (2017). ‘SemEval-2017 Task 7: Detection and interpretation of English puns’, in Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2017), August 2017, pp. 58-68.
Moran, M. E. (2007). ‘Evolution of robotic arms’. Journal of Robotic Surgery 1, pp. 103-111.
Morreall, J. (2009). Comic Relief: A Comprehensive Philosophy of Humor. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
Ntoutsi, E. et al. (2020). ‘Bias in data‐driven artificial intelligence systems—an introductory survey’. WIREs Data Mining Knowl Discov 10: e1356.
O’Neil, C. (2016). Weapons of Math Destruction. How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy. New York: Crown.
Ollila, M.-R. (2019). Tekoälyn etiikkaa [The Ethics of Artificial Intelligence]. Helsinki: Otava.
Panksepp, J. & Burgdorf, J. (2003). ‘”Laughing” rats and the evolutionary antecedents of human joy?’. Physiology & Behavior 79 (3) August 2003, pp. 533-547.
Patterson, F. & Gordon, W. (2002). ‘Twenty-seven years of Project Koko and Michael’, in Galdikas, B. M. F. et al. (eds.), All Apes Great and Small. Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects. Boston: Springer, pp. 165-176.
Petrenko, M., Falk, C. & Hempelmann, C. (2018). ‘Automated ontologized oppositeness’. Presentation in the 30th ISHS Conference 2018 in Tallinn, Estonia.
Pihlström, S. (2015). ‘Research methods and problems’, in Pihlström, S. (ed.), The Bloomsbury Companion to Pragmatism. London: Bloomsbury, pp. 37-63.
Plato, (2009). The Republic by Plato. Trans. B. Jowett. Retrieved October 15, 2019 from http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/republic.html.
Plessner, H. (1970). Laughing and Crying. Trans. M. Grene. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.
Potash, P., Romanov, A. & Rumshisky, A. (2017). ‘SemEval-2017 Task 6: #HashtagWars: Learning a sense of humor’, in Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation, pp. 49-57
Provine, R. R. (2000). Laughter: A Scientific Investigation. New York: Viking.
Pu, L., Moyle, W., Jones, C. & Todorovic, M. (2019). ‘The effectiveness of social robots for older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies’. The Gerontologist 59 (1), pp. e37-e51.
Raskin, V. (1984). Semantic Mechanisms of Humor. Dordrecht, Boston, Lancaster: D. Reidel Publishing Company.
Raskin, V. (1996). ‘Computational implementation of the General Theory of Verbal Humor’, in Hulstijn, J. & A. Nijholt (eds.), Automatic Interpretation and Generation of Verbal Humor: Proceedings of the Twelfth Twente Workshop on Language Technology, joint with International Workshop on Computational Humor. (Twente Workshop on Language Technology; Vol. 12). Enschede: University of Twente, pp. 9-19.
Raskin, V. (ed.), (2008). The Primer of Humor Research. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Raskin, V. (2018). ‘Substance of humor.’ Presentation in the 30th ISHS Conference 2018 in Tallinn, Estonia.
Reese, Hope. (2016). ‘Why Microsoft’s “Tay” AI bot went wrong’. TechRepublic. March 24, 2016. Retrieved June 23, 2021 from https://www.techrepublic.com/article/why-microsofts-tay-ai-bot-went-wrong/
Ruch, W. (ed.) (1998). The Sense of Humor. Explorations of a Personality Characteristic. Berlin/New York, Mouton de Gruyter.
Ruch, W. (2008). ‘Psychology of humor’, in Raskin V. (ed.), The Primer of Humor Research. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 17-100.
Russell, S. (1997). ’Rationality and intelligence’. Artificial Intelligence 94, pp. 57-77.
Russell, S. & Norvig, P. (2009). Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach 3rd edition. Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Searle, J. (1997). The Mystery of Consciousness, New York, NY: New York Review of Books.
Suslov, I. M. (1992). ‘Computer model of a “sense of humour”. I. General algorithm’. Biofizika SSSR 37, 318. Retrieved June 23, 2021 from https://arxiv.org/pdf/0711.2058.pdf
Turing, A. (1950). ’Computing machinery and intelligence’. Mind LIX, pp. 433-460.
Turkle, S. (2011). Alone Together. Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other. New York: Basic Books.
Vaaja, T. (2015). The Problem of Other Minds: Themes from Wittgenstein. Doctoral dissertation. University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
Van Hee, C., Lefever, E. & Hoste, V. (2018). ‘SemEval-2018 Task 3: Irony detection in English tweets’, in Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2018), New Orleans, Louisiana, June 5-6, 2018, pp. 39-50.
Vincent, J. (2016). ‘Twitter taught Microsoft’s AI chatbot to be a racist asshole in a less than a day’. The Verge, March 24, 2016. Retrieved June 23, 2021 from https://www.theverge.com/2016/3/24/11297050/tay-microsoft-chatbot-racist
Wittgenstein, L. (1986). Philosophical Investigations. Trans. G. E. M. Anscombe. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.