Ample research on written professional medical discourse across genres and modalities generally points to the impersonal and dehumanising character of the communication in this particular context. On the other hand, there have been numerous attempts at incorporating the human element into medical texts, be it through different models, sets of guidelines, generic varieties, but also, more holistically, models of medical practice. The objective of the present paper is to study the discourse of case reporting in contemporary medical case reports with respect to patient’s presence. To this aim, a sample of regular case reports derived from a prestigious medical journal has been examined with particular attention to textual references to the treated. It will be shown that regardless of the current trend in medical practice in the direction to patient-centredness, regular medical reports, i.e. not special varieties, still bear the features of the biomedical discourse.
Agha, Riaz A., Alexander J. Fowler, Alexandra Saetta, Ishani Barai, Shivanchan Rajmohan, Dennis P. Orgill (2016a) “A Protocol for the Development of Reporting Criteria for Surgical Case Reports: The SCARE Statement.” International Journal of Surgery 27; 187–189.
Agha, Riaz A., Alexander J. Fowler, Alexandra Saetta, Ishani Barai, Shivanchan Rajmohan, Dennis P. Orgill (2016b) “The SCARE Statement: Consensus-based Surgical Case Report Guidelines.” International Journal of Surgery 34; 180–186.
Anspach, Renee R. (1988) “Notes on the Sociology of Medical Discourse: The Language of Case Presentation.” Journal of Health and Social Behaviour 29; 357–375.
Ashcroft, Richard E. (2000) “Teaching for Patient-centred Ethics.” Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 3; 287–295.
Balint, Michael, John Hunt, Dick Joyce, Marshall Marinker, Jasper Woodcock (1970) Treatment or Diagnosis: A Study of Repeat Prescriptions in General Practice. London: Tavistock.
Bazerman, Charles (1994) “Systems of Genres and the Enactment of Social Intentions.” [In:] Aviva Freedman and Peter Medway (eds.), Genre and the New Rhetoric. London: Taylor & Francis Publishers; 105–123.
Bhatia, Vijay K. (1993) Analysing Genre: Language Use in Professional Settings. London: Longman.
Blois, Marsden S. (1984) Information and Medicine. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bloor, Meriel (2016) “The Construal of Terminal Illness in Online Medical Texts: Social Distance and Semantic Space.” [In:] Sheena Gardner and Sian Alsop (eds.), Systemic Functional Linguistics in the Digital Age. Equinox eBooks Publishing; 120–133.
Charon, Rita. 1986. “To Render the Lives of Patients.” Literature and Medicine 5; 58–74.
Coccia C. T., J. I. Ausman (1987) “Is a Case report an Anecdote? In Defense of Personal Observations in Medicine.” Surgical Neurology 28 (2); 111–113.
Crites, Stephen (1966) “Religion as Story: Angels We Have Heard.” [In:] Robert Scholes and Robert Kellogg (eds.), The Nature of Narrative. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 23–63.
Delbanco, Thomas L. (1992) “Enriching the Doctor-patient Relationship by Inviting the Patient’s Perspective.” Annals of Internal Medicine 116; 414–418.
Donnelly, William J. (1988) “Righting the Medical Record. Transforming Chronicle into Story.” The Journal of American Medical Association 260 (60); 823–826.
Duszak, Anna (1987) The Dynamics of Topics in English and Polish. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa UW.
Fowler, Roger (1996) Language in the News: Discourse and Ideology in the Press. London: Routledge.
Francis, Gill, Anneliese Kramer-Dahl (2004) “Grammar in the Construction of Medical Case Histories.” [In:] Caroline
Coffin, Ann Hewings and Kieran O’Halloran (eds.), Applying English Grammar. Functional and Corpus Approaches. London: Hodder Education; 172–190.
Frank, Arthur (1995) The Wounded Storyteller: Body, Illness, and Ethics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Freeman, Thomas R. (1994) “The Patient-centred Case Presentation.” Family Practice 11; 164–170.
Gagnier, Joel, Gunver Kienle, Douglas Altman, David Moher, Harold Sox, David Riley et al. (2013) “The CARE Guidelines: Consensus-based Clinical Case Reporting Guideline Development.” Global Advances in Health and Medicine 2; 38–43.
Geertz, Clifford (1988) Words and Lives: The Anthropologist as Author. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
Greenhalgh, Trisha (1999) “Narrative based medicine in an evidence based world.” British Medical Journal 318; 323–325.
Gilkey, Melissa B., Jo-Anne L. Earp, Elizabeth A. French (2008) “What is Patient Advocacy?” [In:] Jo-Anne L. Earp, Elizabeth A. French and Melissa B. Gilkey (eds.), Patient Advocacy for Health Care Quality: Strategies for Achieving Patient-centred Care. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 3–28.
Francis, Gill, Anneliese Kramer-Dahl (2004) “Grammar in the Construction of Medical Case Histories.” [In:] Caroline Coffin, Ann Hewings and Kieran O’Halloran (eds.), Applying English Grammar. Functional and Corpus Approaches. London: Hodder Education; 172–190.
Halliday, Michael A. K. (1979) Language as Social Semiotic. The Social Interpretation of Language and Meaning. London: Edward Arnold.
Halliday, Michael A. K. (1994) An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold.
Helán, Robert (2012) Analysis of published medical case reports: Genre-based study. [Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Masaryk University.].
Hirst, Allison, Riaz A. Agha, David Rosin, Peter McCulloch (2013) “How Can We Improve Surgical Research and Innovation?: The IDEAL Framework for Action.” International Journal of Surgery 11(10); 1038–1042.
Hunter, Kathryn Montgomery (1996) “Narrative, Literature, and the Clinical Exercise of Practice Reason.” The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 21; 303
Hurwitz, Brian (2000) “Narrative and the Practice of Medicine.” The Lancet 356; 2086–2089.
Hurwitz, Brian (2006) “Form and Representation in Clinical Case Reports.” Literature and Medicine 25 (2); 216–240.
Jackson, Debra (2014) “Telling Our Stories of Practice through the Genre of the Case Report.” Clinical Case Reports 2; 65.
Jenicek, Milos (2014) Writing, Reading and Understanding in Modern Health Sciences. Medical Articles and Other Forms of Communication. London: CRC Press.
Kasim, N. H. A., B. J. J. Abdullah, J. Manikam (2009) “The Current Status of the Case Report: Terminal or Viable?” Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal 5; e4.
Lakoff, George, Mark Johnson (1980) Metaphors We Live by. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Macnaughton, Jane R., Martyn H. Evans (2004) “Medical Humanities and Medical Informatics: An unlikely alliance? Is there a role for patients’ voices in the modern case record?” Medical Humanities 30 (2); 57–58.
Matthews, Janice R., Robert W. Matthews (2008) Successful Scientific Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mattingly, Cheryl (1998) “In Search of the Good: Narrative Reasoning in Clinical Practice.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 12 (3); 273–329.
McCulloch, Peter, Douglas G. Altman, W. Bruce Campbell, David R. Flum, Paul Glasziou, John C. Marshall et al. (2009) “No Surgical Innovation without Evaluation: The IDEAL Recommendations.” The Lancet 374 (9695); 1105–1112.
McEwen, Irene (2009) Writing Case Reports. How to Manual for Clinicians. Alexandria, Va.: American Physical Therapy Association.
Mead, Nicola, Peter Bower (2000) “Patient-centredness: A Conceptual Framework and Review of the Empirical Literature.” Social Science & Medicine 51; 1087–1110.
Mintz, David (1992) “What’s in a Word? The Distancing Function of Language in Medicine.” Journal of Medical Humanities 13; 223–233.
Murawska (Zabielska), Magdalena (2011) “From a Complaint through Therapy to Recovery: Patient Indexicality in Medical Case Reports.” [In:] Mirosław Pawlak and Jakub Bielak (eds.), New Perspectives in Language, Discourse and Translation Studies. Berlin: Springer; 189–199.
Murawska (Zabielska), Magdalena (2013) “The Tests Confirmed…, the Scan Showed… – a Discourse Analysis of the Examination/Tests and Treatment Sections of Medical Case Reports.” [In:] Anna Szczepaniak-Kozak and Hadrian Lankiewicz (eds.), The Creative Potential of a Word: From Fiction to Education. Piła: Wydawnictwo PWSZ im. S. Staszica w Pile; 105–121.
Nissen, Trygve, Rolf Wynn (2014) “The Clinical Case Report: A Review of its Merits and Limitations.” BMC Research Notes 8; 264–270.
Ortega-Loubon, Christian, Ricardo Correa-Márquez (2014) “Writing a Case Report: A Work of Art.” International Journal of Medical Students 2 (3); 90–91.
O’Halloran, S. Michael (1984) “The Birth of Molecular Biology: An Essay in the Rhetorical Criticism of Scientific Discourse.” Rhetoric Review 3; 70–83.
Pasveer, Bernike (1989) “Knowledge of Shadows: The Introduction of X-ray Images in Medicine.” Sociology of Health and Illness 11 (4); 360–381.
Pregerson, Brady D. (2014) “Ear Pain and a Rash in a 24-year-old Man.” Medscape 28 Oct. http://reference.medscape.com/viewarticle/833922?src=emed_case_nl_0&uac=236 437CX&impID=847079&faf=1.
Reis, Shmuel, Doron Hermoni, Pnina Livingstone, Jeffrey Borkan (2002) “Interactive Narrative and Evidence based Case Report. Case Report of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation and Anticoagulation.” British Medical Journal 325; 1018–1020.
Schmidt, H. G., G. R. Norman, H. A. P. Boshuizen (1990) “A Cognitive Perspective on Medical Expertise: Theory and Implications.” Academic Medicine 65 (10); 611–621.
Siegler, Eugenia L. (2010) “The Evolving Medical Record.” Annals of Internal Medicine, 153; 671–677.
Smith, Carlota S. (2003) Modes of Discourse. The Local Structure of Texts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Smith, Richard (2008a) “Why Do We Need Cases Journal.” Cases Journal 1 (1). http://www.casesjournal.com/content/1/1/1.
Smith, Richard (2008b) “The Policies of Cases Journal.” Cases Journal 1 (2). http:// www.casesjournal.com/content/1/1/2.
Staiano, Kathryn Vance (1986) Interpreting Signs of Illness. A Case Study in Medical Semiotics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Swales, John (ed). 1985. Episodes in ESP. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Van Naerssen, Margaret M. (1985) “Medical Records: One Variation of Physicians’ Language.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 5; 43–73.
Taavitsainen, Irma, Päivi Pahta (2000) “Conventions of Professional Writing: The Medical Case Report in a Historical Perspective.” Journal of English Linguistics 28 (1); 60–76.
Uzun, Kutay (2016) “A Genre Analysis of the Methodology Sections of Descriptive Medical – Surgical Nursing Articles.” Journal of Computer and Education Research 4 (7); 65–81.
Vinjamury, S. Prasad (2008) “Writing a Case Report.” The American Acupuncturist 59 (Spring); 18–19.
Wade, Derick T., Peter W. Walligan (2004) “Do Biomedical Models of Illness Make for Good Healthcare Systems?” British Medical Journal 329; 1398–1401.
Weed, Lawrence L. (1969) Medical Records, Medical Education and Patient Care: The Problem-oriented Medical Record as a Basic Tool. Cleveland, Ohio: Press of Case Western University.
Zabielska, Magdalena (2014) Searching for the Patient’s Presence in Medical Case Reports. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Zabielska, Magdalena (In press) ““Polishing Gems” – New Generic Developments in the Varieties of Medical Case Reporting and Their Discourse.” Tekst i Dyskurs – Text und Diskurs.